Mechanisms of Zinc Incorporation in Aluminosilicate Crystalline Structures and the Leaching Behavior of Product Phases.

Environmental technology

PubMedID: 25399963

Tang Y, Shih K. Mechanisms of Zinc Incorporation in Aluminosilicate Crystalline Structures and the Leaching Behavior of Product Phases. Environ Technol. 2014;1-37.
Abstract This study quantitatively evaluates a waste-to-resource strategy of blending zinc-laden sludge and clay material for low-cost ceramic products. Using ZnO as the simulated zinc-laden sludge to sinter with kaolinite, both zinc aluminate spinel (ZnAl2O4) and willemite (Zn2SiO4) phases were formed during the sintering process. To analyze the details of zinc incorporation reactions, ?-Al2O3 and quartz were further used as precursors to observe ZnAl2O4 and Zn2SiO4 formations. By firing the ZnO mixtures and their corresponding precursors at 750 to 1350 °C for 3 h, the efficiency of zinc transformation was determined through Rietveld refinement analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. The results also show different incorporation behavior for kaolinite and mullite precursors during the formation of ZnAl2O4 and Zn2SiO4 in the system. In addition, with a competitive formation between ZnAl2O4 and Zn2SiO4, the ZnAl2O4 spinel phase is predominant at temperatures higher than 1050 (o)C. This study used a prolonged leaching test modified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) to evaluate ZnO, ZnAl2O4, and Zn2SiO4 product phases. The zinc concentrations in ZnO and Zn2SiO4 leachates were about two orders of magnitude higher than that of ZnAl2O4 leachate at the end of the experiment, indicating that ZnAl2O4 formation is the preferred stabilization mechanism for incorporating zinc in ceramic products. Supplementary_Material.zip.