Peripheral CD4+ T Cell Cytokine Responses Following Human Challenge and Re-Challenge with Campylobacter jejuni.

PloS one

PubMedID: 25397604

Fimlaid KA, Lindow JC, Tribble DR, Bunn JY, Maue AC, Kirkpatrick BD. Peripheral CD4+ T Cell Cytokine Responses Following Human Challenge and Re-Challenge with Campylobacter jejuni. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(11):e112513.
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide; however, our understanding of the human immune response to C. jejuni infection is limited. A previous human challenge model has shown that C. jejuni elicits IFN? production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a response associated with protection from clinical disease following re-infection. In this study, we investigate T lymphocyte profiles associated with campylobacteriosis using specimens from a new human challenge model in which C. jejuni-naïve subjects were challenged and re-challenged with C. jejuni CG8421. Multiparameter flow cytometry was used to investigate T lymphocytes as a source of cytokines, including IFN?, and to identify cytokine patterns associated with either campylobacteriosis or protection from disease. Unexpectedly, all but one subject evaluated re-experienced campylobacteriosis after re-challenge. We show that CD4+ T cells make IFN? and other pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to infection; however, multifunctional cytokine response patterns were not found. Cytokine production from peripheral CD4+ T cells was not enhanced following re-challenge, which may suggest deletion or tolerance. Evaluation of alternative paradigms or models is needed to better understand the immune components of protection from campylobacteriosis.