Prioritization and analysis of pharmaceuticals for human use contaminating the aquatic ecosystem in Italy.

Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis

PubMedID: 25459268

Riva F, Zuccato E, Castiglioni S. Prioritization and analysis of pharmaceuticals for human use contaminating the aquatic ecosystem in Italy. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2014;.
A predictive approach is needed to study pharmaceuticals and their loads in the environment so as to restrict monitoring to the molecules most likely to occur widely. A three steps method has been developed for this purpose. The first step is to establish the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PECs) following the approach proposed by the European Medicines Agency (EMA); then the list is refined taking account of metabolic rates and excretion of the parent compounds in humans. In the third stage the substances are sorted according to their fate in sewage treatment plants (STPs). Finally, the results are compared with real concentrations of the pharmaceuticals in surface waters analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS techniques. This paper reports results of this predictive approach in 2013 for Italy.