Statistical analysis of gold nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in myoblast (C2C12) cells.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces

PubMedID: 25456994

Wahab R, Dwivedi S, Khan F, Mishra YK, Hwang IH, Shin HS, Musarrat J, Al-Khedhairy AA. Statistical analysis of gold nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in myoblast (C2C12) cells. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2014;.
Nanoscale gold particles (Au-NPs) with a diameter below 20nm are notably important candidates for various important applications because of their extraordinary quantum size effects. Their high surface area-to-volume ratio facilitates their very high reactivities; therefore, they can be utilised in different ways in biomedical applications. For example, these nanoparticles can penetrate into cells and bind with proteins or DNA and are therefore potential nanostructures employed for sensing and detecting various biological identities. In the present work, we synthesised Au-NPs via a colloidal process using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4·4H2O) and trisodium citrate dihydrate (N3C6H5O7) as a reducing agent. The shape evolution and the structural properties of these NPs were investigated in detail using TEM and high resolution HR-TEM investigations. Different doses of Au NPs have been applied to treat C2C12 myoblast cells in a 24-h incubation period, and a dose-dependent study has also been performed. The cells were cultivated in DMEM with FBS and antibiotics (strepto-penicillin) at 37°C in a 5% humidified environment of CO2 and 95% air. Cell viability analysis using MTT assays revealed that increased concentration of Au NPs (100-1000ng/mL) resulted in a decreased density of cells. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C2C12 cells analysed with Au-NPs (in a dose-dependent manner), and the RT-PCR data demonstrated the up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 genes in C2C12 cells after treatment with Au-NPs. These results have been confirmed by detailed confocal microscopy (CLSM) studies. In addition, the quantitative analysis of the Au-NPs was also confirmed by statistical analytical parameters, such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ), quantitative recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD), and the analyses again exhibited a significant and large effect of Au NPs on C2C12 cells.