Rationale for the potential use of mesenchymal stromal cells in liver transplantation.

World journal of gastroenterology : WJG

PubMedID: 25469010

Vandermeulen M, Grégoire C, Briquet A, Lechanteur C, Beguin Y, Detry O. Rationale for the potential use of mesenchymal stromal cells in liver transplantation. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20(44):16418-16432.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewing cells that reside essentially in the bone marrow as a non-hematopoietic cell population, but may also be isolated from the connective tissues of most organs. MSCs represent a heterogeneous population of adult, fibroblast-like cells characterized by their ability to differentiate into tissues of mesodermal lineages including adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes. For several years now, MSCs have been evaluated for their in vivo and in vitro immunomodulatory and 'tissue reconstruction' properties, which could make them interesting in various clinical settings, and particularly in organ transplantation. This paper aims to review current knowledge on the properties of MSCs and their use in pre-clinical and clinical studies in solid organ transplantation, and particularly in the field of liver transplantation. The first available clinical data seem to show that MSCs are safe to use, at least in the medium-term, but more time is needed to evaluate the potential adverse effects of long-term use. Many issues must be resolved on the correct use of MSCs. Intensive in vitro and pre-clinical research are the keys to a better understanding of the way that MSCs act, and to eventually lead to clinical success.