Quantitative Assessment of Facial Asymmetry Using Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging in Adults: Validating the Precision and Repeatability of a Global Approach.

The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association

PubMedID: 25489769

Kornreich D, Mitchell AA, Webb BD, Cristian I, Jabs EW. Quantitative Assessment of Facial Asymmetry Using Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging in Adults: Validating the Precision and Repeatability of a Global Approach. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2014;.
Objective : Comparison of global versus landmark analyses of facial asymmetry using three-dimensional photogrammetry to establish a precise method for evaluating facial asymmetry. Design : The landmark-based approach utilized anthropometric data points. Our global approach involved registration of mirror images, independent of a midplane, to calculate a root mean square (RMS) value. We analyzed precision and technical and operator error of both methods. Participants : Three hundred fifty adults participated in this study. Results : We found that the global method has better precision and repeatability with a significantly lower error rate than the landmark-based method. In adults, the average RMS was 0.6253 mm with a standard deviation of 0.16. Conclusions : Our facial asymmetry measurement is more accurate than landmark-based measurements. This method is quick, reliable, and results in generation of a RMS score and a corresponding color-coded facial map that highlights regions of higher and lower asymmetry. This method may be used as a screening tool for asymmetry in both the clinical and research settings.