Incidence, Risk Factors and Consequences of Emergence Agitation in Adult Patients after Elective Craniotomy for Brain Tumor: A Prospective Cohort Study.

PloS one

PubMedID: 25493435

Chen L, Xu M, Li GY, Cai WX, Zhou JX. Incidence, Risk Factors and Consequences of Emergence Agitation in Adult Patients after Elective Craniotomy for Brain Tumor: A Prospective Cohort Study. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(12):e114239.

Emergence agitation is a frequent complication that can have serious consequences during recovery from general anesthesia. However, agitation has been poorly investigated in patients after craniotomy. In this prospective cohort study, adult patients were enrolled after elective craniotomy for brain tumor. The sedation-agitation scale was evaluated during the first 12 hours after surgery. Agitation developed in 35 of 123 patients (29%). Of the agitated patients, 28 (80%) were graded as very and dangerously agitated. By multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, independent predictors for agitation included male sex, history of long-term use of anti-depressant drugs or benzodiazepines, frontal approach of the operation, method and duration of anesthesia and presence of endotracheal intubation. Total intravenous anesthesia and balanced anesthesia with short duration were protective factors. Emergence agitation was associated with self-extubation (8.6% vs 0%, P?=?0.005). Sedatives were administered more in agitated patients than non-agitated patients (85.7% vs 6.8%, P<0.001). In conclusion, emergence agitation was a frequent complication in patients after elective craniotomy for brain tumors. The clarification of risk factors could help to identify the high-risk patients, and then to facilitate the prevention and treatment of agitation. For patients undergoing craniotomy, greater attention should be paid to those receiving a frontal approach for craniotomy and those anesthetized under balanced anesthesia with long duration. More researches are warranted to elucidate whether total intravenous anesthesia could reduce the incidence of agitation after craniotomy.

TRIAL REGISTRATION
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00590499.