Correlation Between Nutritional Markers and Appetite Self-Assessments in Hemodialysis Patients.

Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation

PubMedID: 25498408

Oliveira CM, Kubrusly M, Lima AT, Torres DM, Cavalcante NM, Jerônimo AL, Oliveira TC. Correlation Between Nutritional Markers and Appetite Self-Assessments in Hemodialysis Patients. J Ren Nutr. 2014;.
OBJECTIVE
Protein-energy malnutrition is among the comorbidities that most strongly affect the prognosis of patients with chronic kidney disease. Anorexia, defined as a loss of desire to eat, is one cause of such malnutrition. Tools that evaluate appetite and the correlation between appetite and nutritional parameters require further study. To evaluate the appetite status in patients from 2 hemodialysis clinics in Fortaleza, Brazil and the correlations between appetite (evaluated in the past week and in the past 4 weeks) and demographic, laboratory, and nutritional parameters.

METHODS
This was a cross-sectional study of patients aged =18 years who had undergone dialysis for >3 months. Appetite was evaluated using the first 3 questions of the Appetite and Diet Assessment Tool (ADAT) questionnaire, which evaluate the appetite status during the past week as well as 1 question from the Kidney Disease and Quality of Life™ Short Form that assesses appetite in the past 4 weeks. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the degree of appetite: group 1: very good and good appetite (ADAT) or not and somewhat (Kidney Disease and Quality of Life™ Short Form); group 2: fair or moderately; and group 3: poor and very poor, or very much and extremely. The nutritional parameters evaluated were body mass index (BMI), serum albumin, Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and lean body mass index (lean mass in kilogram per square meter) as obtained by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients with a BMI <23 kg/m(2), albumin <4 g/dL, GNRI <98, and lean body mass index below the lowest quartile were considered malnourished. The associations between appetite and nutritional variables were tested using Fisher exact test and by comparing the means of the variables in the 3 groups using the analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests.

RESULTS
A total of 136 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 50.9 years and a median time on dialysis of 45 months; 57% of the patients were male. Regarding the first question on the ADAT questionnaire, 36% of patients exhibited anorexia in the past week. Furthermore, 28.7% of the population reported a lack of appetite in the last month. Moreover, 34.3% of the patients were considered malnourished according to BMI, 34.1% according to albumin, and 31.6% according to GNRI. Among the studied variables, the mean values of the following variables were different between groups 1, 2, and 3: hemoglobin (P = .0186), creatinine (P = .0392), albumin (P = .0065), GNRI (P = .0274), and lean BMI (P = .0274).

CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of a lack of appetite in hemodialysis patients in both the past week and the past month was high in the present study. The questionnaire evaluating appetite in the last 4 weeks could be used as a malnutrition screening tool in hemodialysis patients as suggested by the correlation of decreased appetite in the last month with variables that assess nutritional status such as albumin, lean body mass index, and GNRI.