Treating Sarcopenia In Older And Oldest Old.

Current pharmaceutical design

PubMedID: 25633117

Martone AM, Lattanzio F, Abbatecola AM, La Carpia D, Tosato M, Marzetti E, Calvani R, Onder G, Landi F. Treating Sarcopenia In Older And Oldest Old. Curr Pharm Des. 2015;.
The presence of sarcopenia is not only rapidly rising in geriatric clinical practice and research, but is also becoming a significant concept in numerous medical specialties. This rapidly rising concept has encouraged the need to identify methods on how to treat sarcopenia. For example, physical activity measures using resistance training exercise, combined with nutritional interventions (protein and amino acid supplementation) have shown to significantly improve muscle mass and strength in older persons. Resistance training may improve muscle strength and mass by improving protein synthesis in skeletal muscle cells. Aerobic exercise has also shown to hold beneficial impacts on sarcopenia by improving insulin sensitivity. At the moment, the literature indicates that most significant improvement on sarcopenia is based on exercise programs. Thus, this type of intervention should be implemented in a persistent manner over time in elders, with or at risk of muscle loss. At the same time, physical training exercise should include correcting nutritional deficits with supplementation methods. For example, in older sarcopenic patients with adequate renal function, daily protein intake should be increased to >1. 0 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. In particular, leucine, ß-hydroxy ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), creatine and some milk-based proteins have been have shown to improve skeletal muscle protein balance. In addition, it is also recommended to correct for vitamin D deficiency, if present, considering the crucial role of vitamin D in skeletal muscle. In this present paper, we will provide evidence regarding the effects of different physical exercise protocols, specific nutritional intervention, and some new metabolic agents (HMB, citrulline malate, ornithine, and others) on clinical outcomes related to sarcopenia in older adults.