Response to therapy in patients with cryptococcosis and AIDS: Association with in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole.

Revista iberoamericana de micologia : organo de la Asociacion Espanola de Especialistas en Micologia

PubMedID: 25637338

Agudelo CA, Muñoz C, Ramírez A, Tobón AM, de Bedout Bact C, Cano LE, Restrepo A. Response to therapy in patients with cryptococcosis and AIDS: Association with in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole. Rev Iberoam Micol. 2014;.
BACKGROUND
The implications of the Cryptococcus neoformans resistance to fluconazole on patient therapy have not been fully elucidated due to the discordant results found in published studies.

AIMS
To establish the influence of C. neoformans resistance to fluconazole in the therapy of individuals with cryptococcosis and AIDS.

METHODS
This study retrospectively compared the clinical course of patients with cryptococcosis according to the level of fluconazole resistance of their C. neoformans isolates.

RESULTS
This study included 71 episodes of cryptococcosis, defined as those isolates of C. neoformans obtained from patients with mycosis, of which 36 isolates were sensitive to fluconazole, 20 susceptible dose-dependent (SDD), and 15 were resistant. There were 5 treatment failures in the consolidation phase; two occurred in patients who had a susceptible strain, 2 in patients who had SDD strains, and one in a patient who had a resistant strain. During the maintenance treatment, relapses occurred in 4 of 33 patients (12%), seen during the follow-up period, none of which occurred in the group with resistant isolates. There were no significant differences in survival time free of treatment failure (p=0.65) or survival time free of failure or relapse (p=0.38). These results were not affected when tested in a Cox model that included age, CD4T lymphocyte counts, and use of antiretroviral therapy.

CONCLUSIONS
In HIV patients with cryptococcosis, the resistance of C. neoformans appeared not to increase the risk of failure or relapse during treatment.