Base Excision Repair Enzymes Protect Abasic Sites in Duplex DNA from Interstrand Cross-Links.

Biochemistry

PubMedID: 25679877

Admiraal SJ, O'Brien PJ. Base Excision Repair Enzymes Protect Abasic Sites in Duplex DNA from Interstrand Cross-Links. Biochemistry. 2015;.
Hydrolysis of the N-glycosyl bond between a nucleobase and deoxyribose leaves an abasic site within duplex DNA. The abasic site can react with exocyclic amines of nucleobases on the complementary strand to form interstrand DNA-DNA cross-links (ICLs). We find that several enzymes from the base excision repair (BER) pathway protect an abasic site on one strand of a DNA duplex from cross-linking with an amine on the opposing strand. Human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) and E. coli 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA) accomplish this by binding tightly to the abasic site and sequestering it. AAG protects an abasic site opposite T, the product of its canonical glycosylase reaction, by a factor of ~10-fold, as estimated from its inhibition of the reaction of an exogenous amine with the damaged DNA. Human apurinic/apyrimidinic site endonuclease 1 (APE1) and E. coli endonuclease III (Nth) both decrease the amount of ICL at equilibrium by generating a single strand DNA nick at the abasic position as it is liberated from the cross-link. The reversibility of the reaction between amines and abasic sites allows BER enzymes to counter the potentially disruptive effects of this type of cross-link on DNA transactions.