Diagnosis and management of patients with allergy to metal implants.

Expert review of clinical immunology

PubMedID: 25695869

Thomas P, Summer B. Diagnosis and management of patients with allergy to metal implants. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2015;1-9.
Cutaneous allergic reactions to implanted metal devices, for example, orthopedic, are well reported in the literature. Also, extracutaneous complications resulting from peri-implant inflammation have been observed in association with metal allergy. Nickel, cobalt, and chromium are the three most common triggers of both cutaneous and extracutaneous allergy-related complications. However, the diagnosis of metal implant allergy remains a challenge, that is, the synopsis of excluding differential diagnoses and the combination of different allergy diagnostic tools is needed. Thus, the management of metal implant allergy is also hampered by clinical uncertainty and unresolved scientific questions.