A prospective study of adjustment to hemodialysis.

ANNA journal / American Nephrology Nurses' Association

PubMedID: 9887702

Lev EL, Owen SV. A prospective study of adjustment to hemodialysis. ANNA J. 1998;25(5):495-504; discussion 505-6.
OBJECTIVE
To examine (a) changes in subjects' self-care self-efficacy over time and (b) the relationship of subjects' self-care self-efficacy with adjustment to hemodialysis.

DESIGN
A longitudinal design was used to study changes in self-care self-efficacy and associations between self-care self-efficacy and measures of adjustment: health status, mood distress, symptom distress, dialysis stress, and perceived adherence to fluid restriction.

SAMPLE/SETTING
Subjects were recruited from 8 settings in the Northeast where outpatient hemodialysis treatment was administered. Sixty-four subjects were recruited to the study. Twenty-eight subjects completed 3 occasions of data collection.

METHODS
Data were collected on three occasions: (a) baseline-within 100 days of beginning treatment; (b) 4 months after beginning treatment; and (c) 8 months after beginning treatment. Eta-squared, a measure of practical significance, is reported for four factors of the self-care self-efficacy measure on each of the three occasions. Associations between self-care self-efficacy and measures of adjustment were examined by means of Pearson correlations.

RESULTS
Eta-squared estimates showed generally positive changes occurring over time in subjects' self-care self-efficacy, health status, mood distress, symptom distress, dialysis stress, and perceived adherence to fluid restriction. Changes were more positive at 4-months than at 8-months after enrollment. Significant correlations (p < .05) occurred between self-care self-efficacy and mood states, health status, symptom distress, and perceived adherence to fluid restrictions. Correlations occurred more frequently between self-care self-efficacy and mood states than between self-care self-efficacy and other measures of adjustment.

CONCLUSIONS
The study provided pilot data suggesting that hemodialysis patients' self-care self-efficacy and measures of adjustment change over time. Patients who had increased confidence in self-care strategies (self-efficacy) were associated with having more positive mood states, health status, and perceived adherence to fluid restrictions and less symptom distress. Interventions designed to increase patients' self-care self-efficacy may yield positive results. Nurses are in an excellent position to give efficacy enhancing feedback that may promote patients' adjustment.