Multiple ways to regulate translation initiation in bacteria: Mechanisms, regulatory circuits, dynamics.

Biochimie

PubMedID: 25792421

Duval M, Simonetti A, Caldelari I, Marzi S. Multiple ways to regulate translation initiation in bacteria: Mechanisms, regulatory circuits, dynamics. Biochimie. 2015;.
To adapt their metabolism rapidly and constantly in response to environmental variations, bacteria often target the translation initiation process, during which the ribosome assembles on the mRNA. Here, we review different mechanisms of regulation mediated by cis-acting elements, sRNAs and proteins, showing, when possible, their intimate connection with the translational apparatus. Indeed the ribosome itself could play a direct role in several regulatory mechanisms. Different features of the regulatory signals (sequences, structures and their positions on the mRNA) are contributing to the large variety of regulatory mechanisms. Ribosome heterogeneity, variation of individual cells responses and the spatial and temporal organization of the translation process add more layers of complexity. This hampers to define manageable set of rules for bacterial translation initiation control.