Looking beyond the induction of Th2 responses to explain immunomodulation by helminths.

Parasite immunology

PubMedID: 25869527

Nutman TB. Looking beyond the induction of Th2 responses to explain immunomodulation by helminths. Parasite Immunol. 2015;.
Although helminth infections are characteristically associated with Th2-mediated responses that include the production of the prototypical cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 by CD4+ cells, the production of IgE, peripheral blood eosinophilia and mucus production in localized sites, these responses are largely attenuated when helminth infections become less acute. This modulation of the immune response that occurs with chronic helminth infection is often induced by molecules secreted by helminth parasites, by non-Th2 regulatory CD4+ cells, and by non-classical B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. This review will focus on those parasite- and host-mediated mechanisms underlying the modulated T cell response that occurs as the default in chronic helminth infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.