Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Fixed-Beam Pulsed Ultrasound.

Ultrasound in medicine & biology

PubMedID: 25933710

Miller DL, Dou C, Raghavendran K. Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Fixed-Beam Pulsed Ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2015;.
The induction of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) by pulsed ultrasound was discovered 25 y ago, but early research used fixed-beam systems rather than actual diagnostic ultrasound machines. In this study, results of exposure of rats to fixed-beam focused ultrasound for 5 min at 1. 5 and 7. 5 MHz were compared with recent research on diagnostic ultrasound. One exposure condition at each frequency used 10-µs pulses delivered at 25-ms intervals. Three conditions involved Gaussian modulation of the pulse amplitudes at 25-ms intervals to simulate diagnostic scanning: 7. 5 MHz with 0. 3- and 1. 5-µs pulses at 100- and 500-µs pulse repetition periods, respectively, and 1. 5 MHz with 1. 7-µs pulses at 500-µs repetition periods. Four groups were tested for each condition to assess PCH areas at different exposure levels and to determine occurrence thresholds. The conditions with identical pulse timing resulted in smaller PCH areas for the smaller 7. 5-MHz beam, but both had thresholds of 0. 69-0. 75 MPa in situ peak rarefactional pressure amplitude. The Gaussian modulation conditions for both 7. 5 MHz with 0. 3-µs pulses and 1. 5 MHz with 1. 7-µs pulses had thresholds of 1. 12-1. 20 MPa peak rarefactional pressure amplitude, although the relatively long 1. 5-µs pulses at 7. 5 MHz yielded a threshold of 0. 75 MPa. The fixed-beam pulsed ultrasound exposures produced lower thresholds than diagnostic ultrasound. There was no clear tendency for thresholds to increase with increasing ultrasonic frequency when pulse timing conditions were similar.