Somatic and gastrointestinal in vivo biotransformation rates of hydrophobic chemicals in fish.

Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC

PubMedID: 25939596

Lo JC, Campbell DA, Kennedy CJ, Gobas FA. Somatic and gastrointestinal in vivo biotransformation rates of hydrophobic chemicals in fish. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015;.
To improve current bioaccumulation assessment methods, a methodology is developed, applied, and investigated for measuring in vivo biotransformation rates of hydrophobic organic substances in the body (soma) and gastrointestinal tract of the fish. The method resembles the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 305 dietary bioaccumulation test but includes reference chemicals to determine both somatic and gastrointestinal biotransformation rates of test chemicals. Somatic biotransformation rate constants for the test chemicals ranged between 0 d(-1) and 0. 38 (standard error [SE] 0. 03)/d(-1). Gastrointestinal biotransformation rate constants varied from 0 d(-1) to 46 (SE 7) d(-1). Gastrointestinal biotransformation contributed more to the overall biotransformation in fish than somatic biotransformation for all test substances but 1. RESULTS
suggest that biomagnification tests can reveal the full extent of biotransformation in fish.The common presumption that the liver is the main site of biotransformation may not apply to many substances exposed through the diet.

THE RESULTS
suggest that the application of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for somatic biotransformation rates and hepatic in vitro models to assess the effect of biotransformation on bioaccumulation can underestimate biotransformation rates and overestimate the biomagnification potential of chemicals that are biotransformed in the gastrointestinal tract.With some modifications, the OECD 305 test can generate somatic and gastrointestinal biotransformation data to develop biotransformation QSARs and test in vitro-in vivo biotransformation extrapolation methods. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2282-2294. © 2015 SETAC.