Platelet dysfunction in hypercholesterolemia mice, two Alzheimer's disease mouse models and in human patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Biogerontology

PubMedID: 25947203

Plagg B, Marksteiner J, Kniewallner KM, Humpel C. Platelet dysfunction in hypercholesterolemia mice, two Alzheimer's disease mouse models and in human patients with Alzheimer's disease. Biogerontology. 2015;.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized mainly by accumulation of amyloid-ß plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, synaptic and neuronal loss. Blood platelets contain the neurotransmitter serotonin and amyloid-precursor protein (APP), and may thus be useful as a peripheral biomarker for AD. THE AIM
of the present study was to functionally characterize platelets by FACS, to examine alterations in APP expression and secretion, and to measure serotonin levels in hypercholesterolemia mice with AD-like pathology and in two AD mouse models, the triple transgenic AD model (3xTg) and the APP overexpressing AD model with the Swedish-Dutch-Iowa mutations (APP_SweDI).These data are supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels and compared with changes observed in platelets of patients with AD. We observed decreased platelet APP isoforms in 3xTg mice and patients with AD when analysed by means of Western blot. In patients, a significant increase of APP levels was observed when assessed by ELISA. Secreted APPß proved to be altered amongst all three animal models of AD at different time points and in human patients with AD. Serotonin levels were only reduced in 7 and 14 month old 3xTg mice. Moreover, we found significantly lower EGF levels in human AD patients and could thereby reproduce previous findings. Taken together, our data confirm that platelets are dysfunctional in AD, however, results from AD animal models do not coincide in all aspects, and markedly differ when compared to AD patients. We support previous data that APP, as well as EGF, could become putative biomarkers for diagnosing AD in human platelets.