Development of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues for 3.0-T MRI.

Medical Physics

PubMedID: 23464335

Hattori K, Ikemoto Y, Takao W, Ohno S, Harimoto T, Kanazawa S, Oita M, Shibuya K, Kuroda M, Kato H. Development of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues for 3.0-T MRI. Med Phys. 2013;40(3):032303.
PURPOSE
A 3.0-T MRI phantom (called the CAGN-3.0T phantom) having human-equivalent relaxation times and human-equivalent conductivity was developed.

METHODS
The ingredients of the phantom are carrageenan (as a gelatinizer), agarose (as a T2-relaxation modifier), GdCl3 (as a T1-relaxation modifier), NaCl (as a conductivity modifier), and NaN3 (as an antiseptic). Numerous samples with varying concentrations of agarose, GdCl3, and NaCl were prepared, and T1 and T2 values were measured using 3.0-T MRI.

RESULTS
The T1 values of the CAGN-3.0T phantom were unaffected by NaCl, while the T2 values were only slightly affected. Based on the measured data, empirical formulae were devised to express the relationships between the concentrations of agarose, GdCl3, and NaCl and the relaxation times. The formula for expressing the conductivity of the CAGN-3.0T phantom was obtained.

CONCLUSIONS
By adjustments to the concentrations of agarose, GdCl3, and NaCl, the relaxation times and conductivity of almost all types of human tissues can be simulated by CAGN-3.0T phantoms. The phantoms have T1 values of 395-2601 ms, T2 values of 29-334 ms, and conductivity of 0.27-1.26 S/m when concentrations of agarose, GdCl3, and NaCl are varied from 0 to 2.0 w/w%, 0 to 180 ┬Ámol/kg, and 0 to 0.7 w/w%, respectively. The CAGN-3.0T phantom has sufficient strength to replicate the torso without using reinforcing agents, and can be cut with a knife into any shape.