Review of devices for distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial complex.

Seminars in orthodontics

PubMedID: 10371943

Maull DJ. Review of devices for distraction osteogenesis of the craniofacial complex. Semin Orthod. 1999;5(1):64-73.
Over the last 50 years, Ilizarov refined a method to successfully lengthen endochondral bones and the surrounding soft tissue matrix. Given the difficulties in reconstructing deformities of the craniofacial complex, distraction osteogenesis has recently been used to avoid the problems associated with conventional surgery and to begin correction at an earlier age. Distraction devices can be categorized by whether they are internal or external, the direction of distraction, and the site of application. External devices are capable of either unidirectional, bidirectional, or multiplanar (three-dimensional) distraction. Internal or intraoral distractors are capable of unidirectional distraction only. Distraction devices used to lengthen the mandibular ramus and body, widen the mandible, augment the alveolar ridge, conduct bone transport, and advance the midface are reviewed.