Changes in metabolic markers in insulin-producing ß-cells during hypoxia-induced cell death as studied by NMR metabolomics.

Journal of proteome research

PubMedID: 23795807

Tian L, Kim HS, Kim H, Jin X, Jung HS, Park KS, Cho KW, Park S, Moon WK. Changes in metabolic markers in insulin-producing ß-cells during hypoxia-induced cell death as studied by NMR metabolomics. J Proteome Res. 2013;12(8):3738-45.
This study was designed to investigate changes in the metabolites in the intracellular fluid of the pancreatic ß-cell line INS-1 to identify potential early and late biomarkers for predicting hypoxia-induced cell death. INS-1 cells were incubated under normoxic conditions (95% air, 5% CO2) or hypoxic conditions (1% O2, 5% CO2, 95% N2) for 2, 4, 6, 12, or 24 h. The biological changes indicating the process of cell death were analyzed using the MTT assay, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and immunostaining. Changes in the metabolic profiles from cell lysates were identified using ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) spectroscopy, and the spectra were analyzed by the multivariate model Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structure-Discriminant Analysis. Cell viability decreased approximately 40% after 12-24 h of hypoxia, coincident with a high level of cleaved caspase-3. A high level of HIF-1a was detected in the 12-24 h hypoxic conditions. The metabolite profiles were altered according to the degree of exposure to hypoxia. A spectral analysis showed significant differences in creatine-containing compounds at the early stage (2-6 h) and taurine-containing compounds at the late stage (12-24 h), with the detection of HIF-1a and cleaved caspase-3 in cells exposed to hypoxia compared to normoxia. Glycerophosphocholine decreased during the early stage hypoxia. The change in taurine- and creatine-containing compounds and choline species could be involved in the ß-cell death process as inhibitors or activators of cell death. Our results imply that assessment by ¹H NMR spectroscopy would be a useful tool to predict the cell death process and to identify molecules regulating hypoxia-induced cell death mechanisms.