Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences

PubMedID: 23584022

Sprenger JU, Nikolaev VO. Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14(4):8025-46.
Cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP are ubiquitous second messengers which regulate myriads of functions in virtually all eukaryotic cells. Their intracellular effects are often mediated via discrete subcellular signaling microdomains. In this review, we will discuss state-of-the-art techniques to measure cAMP and cGMP in biological samples with a particular focus on live cell imaging approaches, which allow their detection with high temporal and spatial resolution in living cells and tissues. Finally, we will describe how these techniques can be applied to the analysis of second messenger dynamics in subcellular signaling microdomains.