Inputs and outputs of insulin receptor.

Protein & cell

PubMedID: 24633815

Du Y, Wei T. Inputs and outputs of insulin receptor. Protein Cell. 2014;5(3):203-13.
The insulin receptor (IR) is an important hub in insulin signaling and its activation is tightly regulated. Upon insulin stimulation, IR is activated through autophosphorylation, and consequently phosphorylates several insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, including IRS1-6, Shc and Gab1. Certain adipokines have also been found to activate IR. On the contrary, PTP, Grb and SOCS proteins, which are responsible for the negative regulation of IR, are characterized as IR inhibitors. Additionally, many other proteins have been identified as IR substrates and participate in the insulin signaling pathway. To provide a more comprehensive understanding of the signals mediated through IR, we reviewed the upstream and downstream signal molecules of IR, summarized the positive and negative modulators of IR, and discussed the IR substrates and interacting adaptor proteins. We propose that the molecular events associated with IR should be integrated to obtain a better understanding of the insulin signaling pathway and diabetes.