Modulation of surface trap induced resistive switching by electrode annealing in individual PbS micro/nanowire-based devices for resistance random access memory.

ACS applied materials & interfaces

PubMedID: 25398100

Zheng J, Cheng B, Wu F, Su X, Xiao Y, Guo R, Lei S. Modulation of surface trap induced resistive switching by electrode annealing in individual PbS micro/nanowire-based devices for resistance random access memory. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014;6(23):20812-8.
Bipolar resistive switching (RS) devices are commonly believed as a promising candidate for next generation nonvolatile resistance random access memory (RRAM). Here, two-terminal devices based on individual PbS micro/nanowires with Ag electrodes are constructed, whose electrical transport depends strongly on the abundant surface and bulk trap states in micro/nanostructures. The surface trap states can be filled/emptied effectively at negative/positive bias voltage, respectively, and the corresponding rise/fall of the Fermi level induces a variation in a degenerate/nondegenerate state, resulting in low/high resistance. Moreover, the filling/emptying of trap states can be utilized as RRAM. After annealing, the surface trap state can almost be eliminated completely; while most of the bulk trap states can still remain. In the devices unannealed and annealed at both ends, therefore, the symmetrical back-to-back Fowler-Nordheim tunneling with large ON/OFF resistance ratio and Poole-Frenkel emission with poor hysteresis can be observed under cyclic sweep voltage, respectively. However, a typical bipolar RS behavior can be observed effectively in the devices annealed at one end. The acquirement of bipolar RS and nonvolatile RRAM by the modulation of electrode annealing demonstrates the abundant trap states in micro/nanomaterials will be advantageous to the development of new type electronic components.