[The pneumococcal connection].

Revista chilena de infectologia : organo oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectologia

PubMedID: 23450414

Mella S, Riedel G, Twele L, Domínguez M, Bello H, González G. [The pneumococcal connection]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2013;30(1):74-9.
The resistance of gram-negative bacilli is one of the most important areas in modern medicine, however it hasn't been highlighted the role of the third generation cephalosporins and in particularly ceftriaxone in the selection of gram-negative bacilli resistant to these agents. Paradoxically, ceftriaxone, like the rest of the molecules of this generation, whose initial indication were gram- negative infections began to be used as an agent of choice in pneumococcal infections. The broad spectrum activity of this molecule with its favorable pharmacokinetic properties replaces other agents by this antibiotic in the treatment of a wide range of community acquired infections. However, it wasn't considered the action of this cephalosporin on the microbiome, particularly the intestinal flora, which allowed the selection of enterobacteria that by genetic events, especially parental ß-lactamases mutations (TEM-1, TEM-2, SHV-1), developed resistance to third-generation cephalosporins. The decreased susceptibility to penicillin in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates that stimulated the growing use of ceftriaxone, was one of the main drivers for the development of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in gram-negative bacilli.