ß-Cryptoxanthin Synergistically Enhances the Antitumoral Activity of Oxaliplatin through ?NP73 Negative Regulation in Colon Cancer.

Clinical Cancer Research

PubMedID: 26023082

San Millan C, Soldevilla B, Martín P, Gil-Calderon B, Compte M, Pérez-Sacristán B, Donoso E, Peña C, Romero J, Granado-Lorencio F, Bonilla F, Domínguez G. ß-Cryptoxanthin Synergistically Enhances the Antitumoral Activity of Oxaliplatin through ?NP73 Negative Regulation in Colon Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2015;21(19):4398-409.
BACKGROUND
The acquired resistance to chemotherapy represents the major limitation in the treatment of cancer. New strategies to solve this failure and improve patients' outcomes are necessary. The cancer preventive effect of ß-cryptoxanthin has been widely described in population studies. Few reports support its putative use as an antitumoral compound. Here we focus on the therapeutic potential of ß-cryptoxanthin individually or in combination with oxaliplatin in colon cancer and try to decipher the molecular basis underlying its effect.

METHODS
Apoptosis, viability and proliferation assays, mouse models, and an intervention study in 20 healthy subjects were performed. A PCR array was carried out to unravel the molecular putative basis of the ß-cryptoxanthin effect, and further signaling experiments were conducted. Comet Assay was completed to evaluate the genotoxicity of the treatments.

RESULTS
ß-Cryptoxanthin differentially regulates the expression of the P73 variants in vitro, in vivo, and in a human intervention study. This carotenoid decreases the proliferation of cancer cells and cooperates with oxaliplatin to induce apoptosis through the negative regulation of ?NP73. The antitumoral concentrations of oxaliplatin decrease in the presence of ß-cryptoxanthin to achieve same percentage of growth inhibition. The genotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mice decreased in the combined treatment.

CONCLUSIONS
We propose a putative novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colon cancer based on the combination of ß-cryptoxanthin and oxaliplatin. The combined regimen produced more benefit than either individual modality without increasing side effects. In addition, the concentration-limiting toxicity of oxaliplatin is reduced in the presence of the carotenoid. Clin Cancer Res; 21(19); 4398-409. ©2015 AACR.