Prevalence of malaria and anaemia among HIV infected pregnant women receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in Tanzania: a cross sectional study in Kinondoni Municipality.

BMC pharmacology & toxicology

PubMedID: 24761799

Manyanga VP, Minzi O, Ngasala B. Prevalence of malaria and anaemia among HIV infected pregnant women receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in Tanzania: a cross sectional study in Kinondoni Municipality. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014;1524.
BACKGROUND
HIV-infected pregnant women are particularly more susceptible to the deleterious effects of malaria infection particularly anaemia. In order to prevent opportunistic infections and malaria, a policy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis without the standard Suphadoxine-Pyrimethamine intermittent preventive treatment (SP-IPT) was introduced to all HIV infected pregnant women in the year 2011. However, there is limited information about the effectiveness of this policy.

METHODS
This was a cross sectional study conducted among HIV-infected pregnant women receiving co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in eight public health facilities in Kinondoni Municipality from February to April 2013. Blood was tested for malaria infection and anaemia (haemoglobin <11 g/dl). Data were collected on the adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and other risk factors for malaria infection and anaemia. Pearson chi-square test, Fischer's exact test and multivariate logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis.

RESULTS
This study enrolled 420 HIV infected pregnant women. The prevalence of malaria infection was 4.5%, while that of anaemia was 54%. The proportion of subjects with poor adherence to co-trimoxazole was 50.5%. As compared to HIV infected pregnant women with good adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, the poor adherents were more likely to have a malaria infection (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR?=?6.81, 95% CI?=?1.35-34.43, P?=?0.02) or anaemia (AOR?=?1.75, 95% CI?=?1.03-2.98, P?=?0.039). Other risk factors associated with anaemia were advanced WHO clinical stages, current malaria infection and history of episodes of malaria illness during the index pregnancy.

CONCLUSION
The prevalence of malaria was low; however, a significant proportion of subjects had anaemia. Good adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was associated with reduction of both malaria infection and anaemia among HIV infected pregnant women.