Joint distraction attenuates osteoarthritis by reducing secondary inflammation, cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone aberrant change.

Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society

PubMedID: 26028135

Yuanfeng C, Yuxin S, Xiaohua P, Kiwai H, Gang L. Joint distraction attenuates osteoarthritis by reducing secondary inflammation, cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone aberrant change. Osteoarthr Cartil. 2015;.
OBJECTIVE
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disorder. To date, there is not effective medical therapy. Joint distraction has given us hope for slowing down the OA progression. In this study, we investigated the benefits of joint distraction in OA rat model and the probable underlying mechanisms.

METHODS
OA was induced in the right knee joint of rats through anterior cruciate ligament transaction (ACLT) plus medial meniscus resection. The animals were randomized into three groups: two groups were treated with an external fixator for a subsequent 3 weeks, one with and one without joint distraction; and one group without external fixator as OA control. Serum interleukin-1ß level was evaluated by ELISA; cartilage quality was assessed by histology examinations (gross appearance, Safranin-O/Fast green stain) and immunohistochemistry examinations (MMP13, Col X); subchondral bone aberrant changes was analyzed by micro-CT and immunohistochemistry (Nestin, Osterix) examinations.

RESULTS
Characters of OA were present in the OA group, contrary to in general less severe damage after distraction treatment: firstly, IL-1ß level was significantly decreased; secondly, cartilage degeneration was attenuated with lower histologic damage scores and the lower percentage of MMP13 or Col X positive chondrocytes; finally, subchondral bone abnormal change was attenuated, with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume/total tissue volume (BV/TV) and the number of Nestin or Osterix positive cells in the subchondral bone.

CONCLUSION
In the present study, we demonstrated that joint distraction reduced the level of secondary inflammation, cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone aberrant change, joint distraction may be a strategy for slowing OA progression.