Naturally occurring reoviruses for human cancer therapy.

BMB reports

PubMedID: 26058397

Kim M. Naturally occurring reoviruses for human cancer therapy. BMB Rep. 2015;.
Naturally occurring reoviruses are live replication-proficient viruses that specifically infect human cancer cells while sparing their normal counterpart. Since the discovery of reoviruses in 1950s, they have shown various degrees of safety and efficacy in pre-clinical or clinical applications for human anti-cancer therapeutics. I have recently discovered that cellular tumor suppressor genes are also important in determining reoviral tropism. Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process involving the accumulation of both oncogene and tumor suppressor gene abnormalities. Reoviruses can exploit abnormal cellular tumor suppressor signaling for their oncolytic specificity and efficacy. Many tumor suppressor genes such as p53, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), and retinoblastoma associated (RB) are known to play important roles in genomic fidelity/maintenance. Thus, a tumor suppressor gene abnormality could affect host genomic integrity and likely disrupt intact antiviral networks due to the accumulation of genetic defects which in turn could result in oncolytic reovirus susceptibility. This review outlines the discovery of oncolytic reovirus strains, recent progresses in elucidating the molecular connection between oncogene/tumor suppressor gene abnormalities and reoviral oncotropism, and their clinical implications. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
in the utility of reovirus virotherapy is also proposed in this review.[BMB Reports 2015; 48(8): 454-460].