Insights into the Mechanism of Inhibition of Novel Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitors from Characterization of Resistant Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

PubMedID: 26077256

Lahiri SD, Kutschke A, McCormack K, Alm RA. Insights into the Mechanism of Inhibition of Novel Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitors from Characterization of Resistant Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;.
The type II topoisomerases DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are clinically validated bacterial targets that catalyze the modulation of DNA topology that is vital to DNA replication, repair, and decatenation. Increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones, which trap the topoisomerase-DNA complex, has led to significant efforts in the discovery of novel inhibitors of these targets. AZ6142 is a member of the class of novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs) that utilizes a distinct mechanism to trap the protein-DNA complex. AZ6142 has very potent activity against Gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. In this study, we determined the frequencies of resistance to AZ6142 and other representative NBTI compounds in S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. The frequencies of selection of resistant mutants at 4× the MIC were 1. 7 × 10(-8) for S. aureus and <5. 5 × 10(-10) for S. pneumoniae. To improve our understanding of the NBTI mechanism of inhibition, the resistant S. aureus mutants were characterized and 20 unique substitutions in the topoisomerase subunits were identified. Many of these substitutions were located outside the NBTI binding pocket and impact the susceptibility of AZ6142, resulting in a 4- to 32-fold elevation in the MIC over the wild-type parent strain. DATA
on cross-resistance with other NBTIs and fluoroquinolones enabled the differentiation of scaffold-specific changes from compound-specific variations.Our results suggest that AZ6142 inhibits both type II topoisomerases in S. aureus but that DNA gyrase is the primary target. Further, the genotype of the resistant mutants suggests that domain conformations and DNA interactions may uniquely impact NBTIs compared to fluoroquinolones.