Monoclonal antibodies for renal diseases: current concepts and ongoing treatments.

Expert opinion on biological therapy

PubMedID: 26087994

Santoro D, Pellicanò V, Visconti L, Trifirò G, Cernaro V, Buemi M. Monoclonal antibodies for renal diseases: current concepts and ongoing treatments. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2015;1-25.
INTRODUCTION
In recent years, technological innovations in the field of molecular biology have provided new therapeutic options. In particular, human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), initially used in the treatment of malignancies, have become a therapeutic tool for many other diseases. Most of the application of mAbs revealed encouraging findings to treat patients with immune-mediated glomerular diseases, for whom the standard protocols based on corticosteroids and non-specific immunosuppressants with heavy side effects have for decades been the only therapies.

AREA COVERED
Rituximab, an mAb directed against a specific antigen expressed on B lymphocytes, CD20 antigen, inducing a premature cell apoptosis became very important in the treatment of membranous glomerulonephritis, steroid-resistant nephrotic syndromes and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Another important mAb, eculizumab, is used successfully for treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 nephropathy and MPGN. Many other mAbs are now under premarketing investigation, such as adalimumab, daclizumab, fresolimumab, belimumab, tocilizumab, although some of these mAbs are already approved for different medical applications.

EXPERT OPINION
The availability of novel mAb may therefore constitute the basis for a revolution in the treatment of immune-mediated renal diseases. However, the cost for this therapy remains very high and represents a barrier for its widespread use.