Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists in fetal development and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)

PubMedID: 26111581

de Raaf MA, Beekhuijzen M, Guignabert C, Vonk Noordegraaf A, Bogaard HJ. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists in fetal development and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Reprod Toxicol. 2015;.
The Pregnancy Prevention Program (PPP) is in place to prevent drug-induced developmental malformations. Remarkably, among the ten PPP-enlisted drugs are three endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor antagonists (ERA's: ambrisentan, bosentan and macitentan), which are approved for the treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH). This review describes the effects of ERA's in PAH pathobiology and cardiopulmonary fetal development. While ERA's hamper pathological remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and as such exert beneficial effects in PAH, they disturb fetal development of cardiopulmonary tissues. By blocking ET-1-mediated positive inotropic effects and myocardial fetal gene induction, ERA's may affect right ventricular adaptation to the increased pulmonary vascular resistance in both the fetus and the adult PAH patient.