Adequacy of High-Dose Cefepime Regimen in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

PubMedID: 26124158

Sime FB, Roberts MS, Tiong IS, Gardner JH, Lehman S, Peake SL, Hahn U, Warner MS, Roberts JA. Adequacy of High-Dose Cefepime Regimen in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Hematological Malignancies. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;.
While guidelines recommend empirical cefepime therapy in febrile neutropenia, the mortality benefit of cefepime has been controversial. In light of this, recent reports on pharmacokinetic changes for several antibiotics in febrile neutropenia and the consequent suboptimal exposure call for a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of current dosing. This study aimed to assess pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment from a 2-g intravenous (i. v. ) every 8 h (q8h) cefepime regimen in febrile neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. Cefepime plasma concentrations were measured in the 3rd, 6th, and 9th dosing intervals at 60% of the interval and/or trough point. The selected pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets were the proportion of the dosing interval (60% and 100%) for which the free drug concentration remains above the MIC (fT>MIC). Target attainment was assessed in reference to the MIC of isolated organisms if available or empirical breakpoints if not. The percentage of fT>MIC was also estimated by log-linear regression analysis. All patients achieved >60% fT>MIC in the 3rd and 6th dosing intervals. A 100% fT>MIC was not attained in 6/12, 4/10, and 4/9 patients in the 3rd, 6th, and 9th dose intervals, respectively, or in 14/31 (45%) of the dosing intervals investigated. On the other hand, 29/31 (94%) of trough concentrations were at or above 4 mg/liter. In conclusion, for patients with normal renal function, a high-dose 2-g i. v. q8h cefepime regimen appears to provide appropriate exposure if the MIC of the organism is =4 mg/liter but may fail to cover less susceptible organisms.