Effect of diet- and lifestyle-based metabolic risk-modifying interventions on preeclampsia: a meta-analysis.

Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica

PubMedID: 25138651

Allen R, Rogozinska E, Sivarajasingam P, Khan KS, Thangaratinam S. Effect of diet- and lifestyle-based metabolic risk-modifying interventions on preeclampsia: a meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014;93(10):973-85.
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the effect of dietary and lifestyle interventions with the potential to modify metabolic risk factors on the risk of preeclampsia.

DATA SOURCES
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane from inception until February 2013. Randomized trials in pregnant women evaluating the effect of dietary and lifestyle interventions with the potential to modify metabolic risks such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension on the risk of preeclampsia were included.

STUDY SELECTION
Two independent reviewers selected studies, extracted data and assessed quality. Results were summarized as pooled relative risks (RR) for dichotomous data.

RESULTS
Eighteen studies (8712 women) met our search criteria for inclusion. Six studies evaluated diet (2695 women), six studied mixed interventions with diet, physical activity and lifestyle (1438 women) and six assessed essential fatty acid supplementation (4579 women). The interventions overall reduced the risk of preeclampsia (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.94; p = 0.006 I(2) = 0%) compared with the control group. Dietary interventions reduced the risk of preeclampsia by 33% (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.85; p = 0.001; I(2) = 0%). There was no reduction in the risk of preeclampsia with mixed interventions (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.66-1.32, p = 0.68, I(2) = 0%) or fatty acid supplementation (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.71-1.18; p = 0.49, I(2) = 15%). Meta-regression showed a borderline impact of gestational diabetes status (p = 0.05) on the observed effect.

CONCLUSION
Dietary and lifestyle interventions have the potential to reduce the risk of preeclampsia. The effect of additional therapeutic interventions in women with gestational diabetes mellitus on preeclampsia is not known.