Pre-analytical and analytical factors influencing Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarker variability.

Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry

PubMedID: 26141614

Fourier A, Portelius E, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Quadrio I, Perret-Liaudet A. Pre-analytical and analytical factors influencing Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarker variability. Clin Chim Acta. 2015;.
A panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers including total Tau (t-Tau), phosphorylated Tau protein at residue 181 (p-Tau) and ß-amyloid peptides (Aß42 and Aß40), is frequently used as an aid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis for young patients with cognitive impairment, for predicting prodromal AD in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, for AD discrimination in atypical clinical phenotypes and for inclusion/exclusion and stratification of patients in clinical trials. Due to variability in absolute levels between laboratories, there is no consensus on medical cut-off value for the CSF AD signature. Thus, for full implementation of this core AD biomarker panel in clinical routine, this issue has to be solved. Variability can be explained both by pre-analytical and analytical factors. For example, the plastic tubes used for CSF collection and storage, the lack of reference material and the variability of the analytical protocols were identified as important sources of variability. THE AIM
of this review is to highlight these pre-analytical and analytical factors and describe efforts done to counteract them in order to establish cut-off values for core CSF AD biomarkers.This review will give the current state of recommendations.