Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals defense-related genes and pathways against downy mildew in Vitis amurensis grapevine.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB / Societe francaise de physiologie vegetale

PubMedID: 26151858

Li X, Wu J, Yin L, Zhang Y, Qu J, Lu J. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals defense-related genes and pathways against downy mildew in Vitis amurensis grapevine. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2015;951-14.
Downy mildew (DM), caused by oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Pv), can lead to severe damage to Vitis vinifera grapevines. Vitis amurensis has generally been regarded as a DM resistant species. However, when V. amurensis 'Shuanghong' were inoculated with Pv strains 'ZJ-1-1' and 'JL-7-2', the former led to obvious DM symptoms (compatible), while the latter did not develop any DM symptoms but exhibited necrosis (incompatible). In order to underlie molecular mechanism in DM resistance, mRNA-seq based expression profiling of 'Shuanghong' was compared at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (hpi) with these two strains. Specific genes and their corresponding pathways responsible for incompatible interaction were extracted by comparing with compatible interaction. In the incompatible interaction, 37 resistance (R) genes were more expressed at the early stage of infection (12 hpi). Similarly, genes involved in defense signaling, including MAPK. ROS/NO, SA, JA, ET and ABA pathways, and genes associated with defense-related metabolites synthesis, such as pathogenesis-related genes and phenylpropanoids/stilbenoids/flavonoids biosynthesizing genes, were also activated mainly during the early stages of infection. On the other hand, Ca(2+) signaling and primary metabolism, such as photosynthesis and fatty acid synthesis, were more repressed after 'JL-7-2' challenge. Further quantification of some key defense-related factors, including phytohormones, phytoalexins and ROS, generally showed much more accumulation during the incompatible interaction, indicating their important roles in DM defense. In addition, a total of 43 and 52 RxLR effectors were detected during 'JL-7-2' and 'ZJ-1-1' infection processes, respectively.