Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Conduit Dysfunction After the Ross Procedure.

The Annals of Thoracic Surgery

PubMedID: 26190388

Gillespie MJ, McElhinney DB, Kreutzer J, Hellenbrand WE, El-Said H, Ewert P, Rhodes JF, Søndergaard L, Jones TK. Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Conduit Dysfunction After the Ross Procedure. Ann Thorac Surg. 2015;.
BACKGROUND
Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit dysfunction is a limitation of the Ross procedure. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) could alter the impact of conduit dysfunction and the risk-benefit balance for the Ross procedure.

METHODS
Retrospective review of databases from 3 prospective Melody TPV (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN) trials.

RESULTS
Among 358 patients who were catheterized with the intent to implant a Melody TPV for RVOT conduit stenosis or regurgitation (PR) as part of 3 prospective multicenter studies, 67 (19%) had a prior Ross procedure. Of these, 56 (84%) received a Melody valve; in 5 of the 11 patients who did not, the implant was aborted due to concern for coronary artery compression, and 1 implanted patient required emergent surgery for left coronary compression. The RVOT gradient decreased from a median 38 mm Hg to 13.5 mm Hg (p < 0.001). There was no or trivial PR in all but 4 patients, in whom it was mild. At a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 1 patient died from sepsis. Twelve patients underwent 14 transcatheter (n = 8) or surgical (n = 6) TPV reinterventions for obstruction with stent fracture (n = 9), endocarditis with conduit obstruction (n = 3), or reoperation (n = 2). Freedom from TPV explant was 89% ± 5% at 4 years. Among patients who did not undergo reintervention for obstruction, there was no change in RVOT gradient over time, and all but 1 patient had mild or less PR at last follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS
The TPVR with the Melody valve provides acceptable early outcomes and durable valve function in the majority of Ross patients. Recurrent RVOT obstruction associated with stent fracture was the main reason for reintervention. Coronary compression is not uncommon in Ross patients and should be assessed prior to TPVR.