Future prospect of insulin inhalation for diabetic patients: The case of Afrezza versus Exubera.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society

PubMedID: 26222134

Al-Tabakha MM. Future prospect of insulin inhalation for diabetic patients: The case of Afrezza versus Exubera. J Control Release. 2015;21525-38.
The current review was designed to compare between the insulin inhalation systems Exubera and Afrezza and to investigate the reasons why Exubera was unsuccessful, when Afrezza maker is expecting their product to be felicitous. In January 2006, Pfizer secured FDA and EC approval for the first of its kind, regular insulin through Exubera inhaler device for the management of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in adults. The product was no longer available to the market after less than two years from its approval triggering a setback for competitive new inhalable insulins that were already in various clinical development phases. In contrary, MannKind Corporation started developing its ultra-rapid-acting insulin Afrezza in a bold bid, probably by managing the issues in which Exubera was not successful. Afrezza has been marketed since February, 2015 by Sanofi after getting FDA approval in June 2014. THE RESULTS
from this systematic review indicate the effectiveness of insulin inhalation products, particularly for patients initiating insulin therapy.Pharmaceutical companies should capitalize on the information available from insulin inhalation to produce competitive products that are able to match the bioavailability of subcutaneous (SC) insulin injection and to deal with the single insulin unit increments and basal insulin requirements in some diabetic patients or extending the horizon to inhalable drug products with completely different drug entities for other indications.