Medically important fungi respond to azole drugs: an update.

Future microbiology

PubMedID: 26234644

Zavrel M, White TC. Medically important fungi respond to azole drugs: an update. Future Microbiol. 2015;1-19.
The increased numbers of patients with compromised immune systems in the last three decades have increased the chances of life-threatening fungal infections. Numerous antifungal drugs have been developed in the last 20 years to treat these infections. The largest group, the azoles, inhibits the synthesis of fungal sterols. The use of these fungistatic azoles has subsequently led to the emergence of acquired azole resistance. The most common mechanisms that result in azole resistance include the overexpression or mutation of the azole target enzyme, and overexpression of drug transporters that are responsible for azole efflux from cells. Additional, less-frequent mechanisms have also been identified. Understanding azole resistance mechanisms is crucial for current antifungal treatment and for the future development of new treatment strategies.