New techniques in antibiotic discovery and resistance: Raman spectroscopy.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

PubMedID: 26275225

Carey PR, Heidari-Torkabadi H. New techniques in antibiotic discovery and resistance: Raman spectroscopy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015;.
Raman spectroscopy can play a role in both antibiotic discovery and understanding the molecular basis of resistance. A major challenge in drug development is to measure the population of the drug molecules inside a cell line and to follow the chemistry of their reactions with intracellular targets. Recently, a protocol based on Raman microscopy has been developed that achieves these goals. Drug candidates are soaked into live bacterial cells and subsequently the cells are frozen and freeze-dried. The samples yield exemplary (nonresonance) Raman data that provide a measure of the number of drug molecules within each cell, as well as details of drug-target interactions. RESULTS
are discussed for two classes of compounds inhibiting either ß-lactamase or dihydrofolate reductase enzymes in a number of Gram-positive or Gram-negative cell lines.The advantages of the present protocol are that it does not use labels and it can measure the kinetics of cell-compound uptake on the time scale of minutes. Spectroscopic interpretation is supported by in vitro Raman experiments. Studying drug-target interactions in aqueous solution and in single crystals can provide molecular level insights into drug-target interactions, which, in turn, provide the underpinnings of our understanding of data from bacterial cells. Thus, the applicability of X-ray crystallographic-derived data to in-cell chemistry can be tested.