Role of cardiovascular disease markers in periodontal infection: Understanding the risk.

Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research

PubMedID: 26275186

Gupta M, Chaturvedi R, Jain A. Role of cardiovascular disease markers in periodontal infection: Understanding the risk. Indian J Dent Res. 2015;26(3):231-6.
Both periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent chronic inflammatory conditions, and periodontal infections have been postulated to perpetuate the progression of CVD's. However, limited evidence is available to prove the causal relationship.

An effort in exploring this interrelation has been made in this study. The role of two inflammatory mediators, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40 L) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) has been established in progression and acute precipitation of CVD's. Due to a close link between these two mediators, the present study was designed to correlate the levels of sCD40 L and MCP-1 in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis.

Fifteen healthy and 30 patients of severe chronic periodontitis (diseased) participated in the study. Patients of the diseased group underwent scaling/root planning. The evaluation of plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, clinical attachment level, and a collection of serum and GCF samples was done at baseline and 6 weeks following periodontal therapy. The sCD40 L and MCP-1 levels were quantified using ELISA.

The sCD40 L levels correlated strongly with MCP-1 levels in both GCF (r = 0.888) and serum (r = 0.861) in patients of chronic periodontitis. The relationship between the levels of the two markers was maintained in GCF (r = 0.868) and serum (r = 0.750) after Phase I periodontal therapy.

The positive correlation observed suggests this pathway as one of the mechanisms that may lead to increasing severity of periodontal disease and its systemic effects. Further research efforts should be made in designing appropriate clinical trials, starting at an early stage and monitoring the potential benefits of maintenance of oral hygiene on cardiovascular health.