Differences in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis, first-episode schizophrenia, and in healthy controls.

Early intervention in psychiatry

PubMedID: 26279283

Pawelczyk T, Trafalska E, Pawelczyk A, Kotlicka-Antczak M. Differences in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis, first-episode schizophrenia, and in healthy controls. Early Interv Psychiatry. 2015;.
AIM
Supplementation with omega-3 PUFA showed efficacy in reducing the risk of transition into psychosis in UHR individuals. It is uncertain whether dietary patterns can be partly responsible for n-3 deficiencies observed in susceptible participants before the diagnosis of schizophrenia. The study was designed to assess differences in omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA consumption in healthy controls (HC), UHR participants and FES patients as well as to verify the hypothesis that dietary changes in PUFA consumption are present before active psychosis develops, that is, in UHR individuals.

METHODS
Dietary habits during the previous year were assessed in 34 patients at UHR of psychosis, 33 patients diagnosed with FES and 33 HC participants using a validated Food-Frequency Questionnaire and the Polish Food Composition Tables.

RESULTS
Significant differences in omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA intake were observed between study groups. UHR and FES groups reported significantly higher consumption of omega-6 PUFA in comparison with HC. FES patients also reported a higher consumption of alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3) in comparison with HC. No significant differences were seen in consumption of long-chain marine PUFA.

CONCLUSIONS
Differences in omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA consumption exist before development of psychotic symptoms, fulfilling the criteria of schizophrenia.