Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.)

PubMedID: 26319612

Zhu C, Cai Y, Gertz ER, La Frano MR, Burnett DJ, Burri BJ. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women. Nutr Res. 2015;.
Boiled biofortified cassava containing ß-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225. 9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg ß-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg ß-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0. 3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0. 5 to 9. 5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for ß-carotene, a-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P <. 05), although the retinyl palmitate increase induced by the red palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P <. 05). Vitamin A conversion was 2. 4 ± 0. 3 and 4. 2 ± 1. 5 µg pro-vitamin A carotenoid/1 µg retinol (means ± SEM) for red palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased ß-carotene, a-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency.