Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm/Pseudoaneurysm, a Delayed Complication of Lung Abscess: A Case Report.

The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine

PubMedID: 26369260

Oguma T, Morise M, Harada K, Tanaka J, Sato M, Horio Y, Takiguchi H, Tomomatsu H, Tomomatsu K, Takihara T, Niimi K, Hayama N, Aoki T, Urano T, Ito C, Koizumi J, Asano K. Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm/Pseudoaneurysm, a Delayed Complication of Lung Abscess: A Case Report. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2015;40(3):86-9.
BACKGROUND
Massive hemoptysis mostly arises from the bronchial arteries; however, bleeding can also occur from a lesion in injured pulmonary arteries, such as pulmonary artery aneurysm/pseudoaneurysm (PAA/PAP), during pulmonary infection.

CASE REPORT
A 66-year-old man was admitted with a diagnosis of lung abscess in the right lower lobe that was complicated with pyothorax. Intravenous administration of antibiotics and thoracic drainage successfully controlled the infection and inflammation until day 16, when the patient began to exhibit hemoptysis and bloody pleural effusion. Enhanced computed tomography (CT) with multi-planer reconstruction (MPR) images showed a highly enhanced mass inside the abscess fed by the pulmonary artery, suggesting PAA/PAP. Pulmonary angiography confirmed PAA/PAP, and embolization with coils successfully stopped both the bleeding into the sputum and pleural effusion, with a collapsed aneurysm visible on chest CT scan.

CONCLUSION
Clinicians should consider the possibility of PAA/PAP in the differential diagnosis of hemoptysis during the treatment of patients with lung abscess. MPR CT is helpful for the diagnosis of PAA/PAP and its feeding vessels.