Clinical Presentation of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Kenya.

JAMA Ophthalmology

PubMedID: 26378395

Gichuhi S, Macharia E, Kabiru J, Zindamoyen AM, Rono H, Ollando E, Wanyonyi L, Wachira J, Munene R, Onyuma T, Sagoo MS, Weiss HA, Burton MJ. Clinical Presentation of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Kenya. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133(11):1305-13.
IMPORTANCE
There is a trend toward treating conjunctival lesions suspected to be ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) based on the clinical impression.

OBJECTIVE
To describe the presentation of OSSN and identify clinical features that distinguish it from benign lesions and subsequently evaluate their recognizability.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS
Prospective multicenter study in Kenya from July 2012 through July 2014 of 496 adults presenting with conjunctival lesions. One histopathologist examined all specimens. Six additional masked ophthalmologists independently examined photographs from 100 participants and assessed clinical features.

EXPOSURES
Comprehensive history, slitlamp examination, and photography before excision biopsy.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES
Frequency of clinical features in OSSN and benign lesions were recorded. Proportions and means were compared using ?2, Fisher exact test, or t test as appropriate. Interobserver agreement was estimated using the ? statistic. Examiners' assessments were compared with a reference.

RESULTS
Among 496 participants, OSSN was the most common (38%) histological diagnosis, followed by pterygium (36%) and actinic keratosis (19%). Patients with OSSN were slightly older (mean [SD] age, 41 [11.6] vs 38 [10.9] years; P?=?.002) and tended to have lower levels of education than patients with benign lesions (P?=?.001). Females predominated (67% of OSSN vs 64% of benign lesions; P?=?.65). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was common among patients with OSSN (74%). The most common location was the nasal limbus (61% OSSN vs 78% benign lesions; P?
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE
With overlapping phenotypes and modest interobserver agreement, OSSN and benign conjunctival lesions are not reliably distinguished clinically. Point-of-care diagnostic tools may help.