Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish oil supplementation during pregnancy: which evidence?

The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians

PubMedID: 26382010

Saccone G, Saccone I, Berghella V. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish oil supplementation during pregnancy: which evidence?. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016;1-9.
OBJECTIVE
The aim of this study was to provide evidence-based recommendations for omega-3 supplementation during pregnancy through a systematic review of level-1 data published on this topic.

METHODS
We reviewed all randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) including women who were randomized to treatment with either omega-3 supplementation or control (placebo or no treatment) during pregnancy and analyzed all the outcomes reported in the trials, separately. We planned to evaluate the effect of omega-3 on: preterm birth (PTB); pre-eclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); gestational diabetes; perinatal mortality; small for gestational age (SGA) and birth weight; infant eye and brain development; and postpartum depression.

RESULTS
We identified 34 RCTs including 14 106 singletons and 2578 twins. These level-1 data showed that omega-3 was not associated with prevention of PTB, PE, IUGR, gestational diabetes, SGA, post-partum depression or better children development. Data about birth weight, perinatal mortality and childhood cognitive outcome were limited. Women with gestational diabetes who received omega-3 had significantly lower serum C-reactive protein concentrations, low incidence of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns and decreased newborns' hospitalization rate.

CONCLUSIONS
There was not enough evidence to support the routine use of omega-3 supplementation during pregnancy. Given the 73% significant decrease in perinatal death in the singleton gestations who started omega-3 supplementation =?20 weeks, further research is needed. Large RCTs in multiple gestations and longer follow-up are also required.