Analytical methods for the assessment of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure during human fetal and lactation stages: A review.

Analytica chimica acta

PubMedID: 26388473

Jiménez-Díaz I, Vela-Soria F, Rodríguez-Gómez R, Zafra-Gómez A, Ballesteros O, Navalón A. Analytical methods for the assessment of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure during human fetal and lactation stages: A review. Anal Chim Acta. 2015;89227-48.
In the present work, a review of the analytical methods developed in the last 15 years for the determination of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in human samples related with children, including placenta, cord blood, amniotic fluid, maternal blood, maternal urine and breast milk, is proposed. Children are highly vulnerable to toxic chemicals in the environment. Among these environmental contaminants to which children are at risk of exposure are EDCs -substances able to alter the normal hormone function of wildlife and humans-. The work focuses mainly on sample preparation and instrumental techniques used for the detection and quantification of the analytes. The sample preparation techniques include, not only liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE), but also modern microextraction techniques such as extraction with molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) or ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), which are becoming alternatives in the analysis of human samples. Most studies focus on minimizing the number of steps and using the lowest solvent amounts in the sample treatment. The usual instrumental techniques employed include liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC) mainly coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Multiresidue methods are being developed for the determination of several families of EDCs with one extraction step and limited sample preparation.