Lupeol derivative mitigates Echis carinatus venom-induced tissue destruction by neutralizing venom toxins and protecting collagen and angiogenic receptors on inflammatory cells.

Biochimica et biophysica acta

PubMedID: 26391844

Katkar GD, Sharma RD, Vishalakshi GJ, Naveenkumar SK, Madhur G, Thushara RM, Narender T, Girish KS, Kemparaju K. Lupeol derivative mitigates Echis carinatus venom-induced tissue destruction by neutralizing venom toxins and protecting collagen and angiogenic receptors on inflammatory cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1850(12):2393-2409.
BACKGROUND
Echis carinatus bite is a serious threat in South-Asian countries including India, as it causes highest number of deaths and terrifying long-term tissue destruction at the bitten site. Although venom metalloproteinases and hyaluronidases are the suggested key players, studies on the effect of venom on polymorphonuclear cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and platelets, and their role in long-term tissue destruction are still in infancy. While, the effect of venom on collagen receptors, integrin a2ß1/GP VI/DDR1 and CX3CR1 chemokine receptor present on these cells is an untouched area.

METHODS
Lupeol, lupeol acetate, its synthetic derivatives 2-8 were screened for inhibition of E. carinatus venom induced-hemorrhage in mouse model where compound 8 was found to be the most potent. Further, compound 8 efficiently neutralized venom induced hemorrhage, edema, dermonecrosis, myonecrosis, myotoxicity, pro-coagulant, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and cleavage of collagen and CX3CR1 receptors on inflammatory cells in in vivo, in silico, ex vivo and in vitro studies.

CONCLUSIONS
This study for the first time demonstrated the cleavage of collagen receptors and the receptor for angiogenesis and wound healing by the venom and its inhibition by compound 8, as these are important for firm adhesion of inflammatory cells at the damaged site to resolve inflammation and promote tissue repair.

GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE
This study provides a lead in venom pharmacology, wherein, compound 8 could be a therapeutic agent for the better management of viper venom-induced long-term tissue destruction.