Monte Carlo simulation of spectral reflectance and BRDF of the bubble layer in the upper ocean.

Optics express

PubMedID: 26406633

Ma L, Wang F, Wang C, Wang C, Tan J. Monte Carlo simulation of spectral reflectance and BRDF of the bubble layer in the upper ocean. Opt Express. 2015;23(19):24274-89.
The presence of bubbles can significantly change the radiative properties of seawater and these changes will affect remote sensing and underwater target detection. In this work, the spectral reflectance and bidirectional reflectance characteristics of the bubble layer in the upper ocean are investigated using the Monte Carlo method. The Hall-Novarini (HN) bubble population model, which considers the effect of wind speed and depth on the bubble size distribution, is used. The scattering coefficients and the scattering phase functions of bubbles in seawater are calculated using Mie theory, and the inherent optical properties of seawater for wavelengths between 300 nm and 800 nm are related to chlorophyll concentration (Chl). The effects of bubble coating, Chl, and bubble number density on the spectral reflectance of the bubble layer are studied. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the bubble layer for both normal and oblique incidence is also investigated. THE RESULTS
show that bubble populations in clear waters under high wind speed conditions significantly influence the reflection characteristics of the bubble layer.Furthermore, the contribution of bubble populations to the reflection characteristics is mainly due to the strong backscattering of bubbles that are coated with an organic film.