Trefoil Factor 1 Excretion Is Increased in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

PloS one

PubMedID: 26390128

Lebherz-Eichinger D, Tudor B, Ankersmit HJ, Reiter T, Haas M, Roth-Walter F, Krenn CG, Roth GA. Trefoil Factor 1 Excretion Is Increased in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(9):e0138312.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In many patients CKD is diagnosed late during disease progression. Therefore, the implementation of potential biomarkers may facilitate the early identification of individuals at risk. Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides promote restitution processes of mucous epithelia and are abundant in the urinary tract. We therefore sought to investigate the TFF peptide levels in patients suffering from CKD and their potential as biomarkers for CKD. We analysed TFF1 and TFF3 in serum and urine of 115 patients with CKD stages 1-5 without dialysis by ELISA. 20 healthy volunteers served as controls. Our results showed, that urinary TFF1 levels were significantly increased with the onset of CKD in stages 1-4 as compared to controls and declined during disease progression (p = 0. 003, < 0. 001, 0. 005, and 0. 007. median concentrations: 3. 5 pg/mL in controls vs 165. 2, 61. 1, 17. 2, and 15. 8 pg/mL in CKD 1-4). TFF1 and TFF3 serum levels were significantly elevated in stages 3-5 as compared to controls (TFF1: p < 0. 01; median concentrations: 12. 1, 39. 7, and 34. 5 pg/mL in CKD 3-5. TFF3: p < 0. 001; median concentrations: 7. 1 ng/mL in controls vs 26. 1, 52. 8, and 78. 8 ng/mL in CKD 3-5). TFF3 excretion was increased in stages 4 and 5 (p < 0. 001; median urinary levels: 65. 2 ng/mL in controls vs 231. 5 and 382. 6 ng/mL in CKD 4/5; fractional TFF3 excretion: 6. 4 in controls vs 19. 6 and 44. 1 in CKD 4/5). ROC curve analyses showed, that monitoring TFF peptide levels can predict various CKD stages (AUC urinary/serum TFF > 0. 8). In conclusion our results show increased levels of TFF1 and TFF3 in CKD patients with a pronounced elevation of urinary TFF1 in lower CKD stages. Furthermore, TFF1 and TFF3 seems to be differently regulated and show potential to predict various CKD stages, as shown by ROC curve analysis.